Entrepreneurship development with Rani Pig at Indo-Myanmar Border Noklak District, Nagaland

Entrepreneurship development with Rani Pig at Indo-Myanmar Border Noklak District, Nagaland

Nagas are non-vegetarians who primarily enjoy pork, with an average annual consumption of 30 kilograms. Pork is consumed daily in social and cultural functions, with its demand increasing during winter and Christmas. Locally grown pork is the most popular during weddings and socio-cultural events. Naga tribes use local herbs, fermented bamboo shoots, and medicinal plants to make pork recipes. Smoked pork is preferred for lean periods. Only black color pigs are slaughtered for consumption, and farmers earn maximum profit by selling live pigs or pork. Despite high demand, Nagaland's pig production system is not able to meet its pork demand.

Entrepreneurship development with Rani Pig at Indo-Myanmar Border Noklak District, Nagaland  Entrepreneurship development with Rani Pig at Indo-Myanmar Border Noklak District, Nagaland

Pigs are typically kept in Nagaland in backyard systems with two to three pigs per unit. The rural farmers provide kitchen waste, agro-waste, and locally available plants as their feed. Kitchen waste, agro-waste, and plants are mixed, boiled, and then offered to pigs. Commercial feeding is restricted to Dimapur, Kohima, and urban district headquarters. Pigs are mostly raised for fattening (90%) as compared to breeding (10%). Pig breeding in Nagaland is facing challenges due to lack of awareness, availability of good germplasm, breeding boar, and high costs (Rs.1500 to Rs.2500 for one piglet per breeding). As a result, the pig production system is transitioning from backyard to commercial. The young and educated youth are taking up pig farming and many successful pig entrepreneurs have come up.

Entrepreneurship development with Rani Pig at Indo-Myanmar Border Noklak District, Nagaland

ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland has been working for the last two decades to improve pig productivity on a sustainable basis. The Centre has developed and standardized modern pig production technologies for farmers, entrepreneurs, state departments, etc.

To address the problem of low productivity of Pig production system in Nagaland, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi has implemented the ICAR-Mega Seed Project on Pig at ICAR-Research Complex for North-Eastern Hill Region, Nagaland Centre, Medziphema since the Year - 2009. The main objective of the project was to infuse the improved pig germplasm, promoting pig breeding unit and capacity building of different stakeholders. Under the project, ICAR Nagaland Centre has disseminated around 7000 Rani Pig germplasm (Hampshire X Ghungroo) to 2200 pig breeders. In addition, the Centre has trained more than 2000 farmers, extension workers, KVK staff, and state government officials. There are around 20 successful pig entrepreneurs who have been provided hand-holding by ICAR. There is a huge demand for these technologies of ICAR even from the remotest corner of the state.

Noklak is the remotest newly formed district at the Indo-Myanmar border inhabited by the Khiamniungan Naga tribe. ICAR Nagaland Centre in collaboration with the State Police Department implemented a pig breeding project at Noklak district under Tribal Sub Plan in March 2022. Thirty tribal farmers from different villages were selected by the police department and trained by ICAR Nagaland Centre from 2nd to 4th March on the promotion of ‘Scientific Pig Breeding-Improving Economical and Nutritional Security of Tribal Farmers of NOKLAK district at Indo-Mynamar Border’. After the training, ICAR Nagaland Centre provided CSF vaccinated 100 Rani Piglets along with starter pig feed and medicine for two months. The follow-up and feedback visit to Noklak was done by ICAR Nagaland Centre in April 2022. The farmers have grown their pig stock and 8 tribal farmers have adopted pig breeding.

Miss Chongkoi K Lamniah, a farmer, aged 26 years from Noklak village, graduated with a Bachelor of Arts. After the training, she started her farm with 6 females and four male Rani Piglets. She regularly takes advice from ICAR Nagaland Centre on pig health and reproduction aspects. Currently, she has a total number of 29 pigs including 14 piglets. She sold 32 piglets besides three fattener pigs from her farm. In a very short period, she has been able to earn a net profit of approximately Rs.140000 from her pig farm. Now, she is planning to further expand her pig breeding farm. She stated that pig breeding along with fattening is the most profitable venture in remote districts. She emphasised rearing good-quality germplasm and taking proper biosecurity measures. In recent times, African swine fever has spread in the district leading to high pig mortality. However, she has ensured that her pig farm remains disease-free because of proper biosecurity reasons. Miss Chongkoi urged the educated unemployed youth of her district to take up the challenge of pig breeding to ensure economic and nutritional security.

(Source: ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland)